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However, the movement had more political ambitions, and soon moved to abolish the constitutional monarchy and aristocracy of Egypt and Sudan, establish a republic, end the British occupation of the country, and secure the independence of Sudan (previously governed as an Anglo-Egyptian condominium). Nor did this state of things improve noticeably in the next ten years. The British occupation of Egypt had some positive effects on Egypt as a country and in regards to its people. As for those whose arrest we saw fit from among men formerly associated with the army, we will not deal harshly with them, but will release them at the appropriate time. On the morning of 23 July, he and Abdel Hakim Amer left Mohieddin's home in civilian clothes and drove around Cairo in Nasser's automobile to collect men to arrest key royalist commanders before they reached their barracks and gain control over their soldiers. Its teachings form the core of true democracy. 1919 Revolution: “Egypt, occupied by Great Britain in effect since 1882, achieved its independence from colonial rule only in the aftermath of sustained protests. You manifested this during and after the Palestine War in the corrupt arms scandals and your open interference in the courts to try to falsify the facts of the case, thus shaking faith in justice. The two leaders of this revolution were Muhammad Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser. By the end of the ten years required for completion of our most ambitious scheme, Sadd el 'Ali, we believe we shall have more than doubled Egypt's national income, with a corresponding increase in the nation's standard of living. I assure the Egyptian people that the entire army today has become capable of operating in the national interest and under the rule of the constitution apart from any interests of its own. This site uses cookies to improve your user experience. The situation was renegotiated in the Anglo-Egyptian treaty of 1936, which granted Britain the right to station troops in Egypt for the defense of the Suez Canal and its link with the Indian Empire and to control the training of the Egyptian Army. Stirrings of discontent were felt in the army, and in January 1952 opposition officers supported by the Free Officers gained control of the governing board of the Officers Club. This monopolistic system was extended to commerce and industry (with the entire destruction of free enterprise as a result), and the money thus collected was not used for the national welfare but spent lavishly on wars serving Mohammed Ali's own ambition. On January 25, 1952, British troops discovered the fedayeen had retreated into the local police barracks. Ali Maher was asked to form a civilian government. We made no distinction between West and East in selling cotton, and trade and payments agreements were concluded with Eastern and Western countries alike. Social welfare units are being established in the rural areas, each unit to serve 15,000 inhabitants, and to include a school, a health center and a social-agricultural extension section. The first was based on argument and logic, giving rise to the formation of political parties and the founding of newspapers and magazines to enlighten public opinion. His failure in fulfilling his duties--which are rights from the standpoint of the people--entails resistance on the part of the nation to secure these rights. The nationalist Wafd party was formed in 1924, two years after Egypt gained its independence from Britain. British troops tracked the fedayeen into the city. In a country of more than 90 million where more than 70 percent of the population are … Hence the formation of "liberation commando squads." Financial policy impoverished the country. We were able to dispose of the huge carryovers of crops. In January, the Muslim Brotherhood was outlawed. Optional Video: “Gigi’s Revolution” Note: Students will need access to the internet to complete this activity. Egypt's present agricultural land totals 6,000,000 acres. Americans recognize this to be the inalienable right of every man, yet balk at supporting these nationalists for fear of annoying some colonial Power that has refused to move with the times. British advisers were installed in every department of government and vested with power to exercise full control. Mismanagement and corruption by the King's clique, which included trading in defective arms, rendered fruitless the bitter sacrifices made by the Egyptian Army which would otherwise have secured victory. Without suppression from local fire brigades, these arson attacks further inflamed more rioting. The nations of the Arab League believe that they can unite in a force that contributes to the cause of world peace. The new régime in Egypt has a clear-cut policy for rebuilding the country on new foundations--an integrated, three-pronged development, now on the way to execution. 1) What impact did the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 have on the content of Egyptian Films and/or the Egyptian film industry? With the end of the First World War, however, there came a remarkable rise in the prices of agricultural products, and this enabled the farmers to repay part of their debts and cultivate different sorts of crops which could be disposed of more easily. Apart from increasing the extent of cultivated land, we are also stepping up agricultural production per acre. Just in 1952 they actually had a revolution. The British occupation started in 1882 as a result of the immense debt that Egypt had accrued to European powers, bankers and investors, and its influence continued up to the 1952 revolution. In the warning that General Naguib conveyed to King Farouk on 26 July upon the king's abdication, he provided a summary of the reasons for the revolution: In view of what the country has suffered in the recent past, the complete vacuity prevailing in all corners as a result of your bad behavior, your toying with the constitution, and your disdain for the wants of the people, no one rests assured of life, livelihood, and honor. Those who accepted bribes and were thus influenced caused our defeat in the Palestine War [1948]. At home, corrupt government interference with cotton prices, which had resulted in the medium-staple cotton fetching higher prices than the long-staple categories, was eliminated. The officers thus decided to launch a preemptive strike and after finalizing their plans in meeting at the home of Khaled Mohieddin, they began their coup on the night of 22 July. Our national struggle was therefore one continual and unremitting battle, despite intermittent weaknesses. An attempt was made to divert the attention of the masses to external issues--the key to the abolition of the 1936 treaty. The iron-ore deposits at Aswan are rich--sufficient, it is estimated, to supply Egypt's steel industry for 500 years. In the Classroom: 1. He claimed exemptions from taxation and got control of thousands of acres of state property and entailed land. The revolution also had a definite program for reconstruction. The revolution was faced with immediate threats from Western imperial powers, particularly the United Kingdom, which had occupied Egypt since 1882, and France, both of whom were wary of rising nationalist sentiment in territories under their control throughout the Arab world, and Africa. In this sense it is not only humanitarian but elastic and tolerant. The thirst of party leaders after power was also utilized by King Farouk to realize personal ambitions at the expense of the vital interests of the people. But the League can be made the instrument through which a greater unity can be achieved among the Arab nations in every field of activity. The revolution seeks to bridge the gulf between social classes and to foster the spirit of altruism which marks a cultivated individual and a cohesive group. The RCC began funding and coordinating ever greater attacks on the British and French in the Suez Canal Zone, and Damietta. When the police refused to surrender the fedayeen, the British officer attempted to negotiate the surrender of the police and the fedayeen. Leader: Gamal Abel Nasser. While some (including Gen. Naguib and Nasser) viewed the best solution as to send him into exile, others argued the urge to put him on trial and even execute him for the "crimes he committed to the Egyptian people". In 1882 naval units of the British Fleet bombarded Alexandria, Egypt's second capital and the biggest port of the Mediterranean, and landed troops. They appointed a commander who is either ignorant or corrupt. It has known what it wanted to do away with, but it has not known what it wanted to build. Should anyone behave in such ways, he will be dealt with forcefully in a manner such as has not been seen before and his deeds will meet immediately the reward for treason. The banking system that had been established at the time of Khedive Ismail was designed to serve only the interests of the vested class. Mohieddin stayed in his home and Anwar Sadat went to the cinema. It is certain that all Egypt will meet this news with enthusiasm and will welcome it. The nation must also be provided with a constitution that safeguards the interests of all groups. publishers of It was purely national with no international intervention. Rural coöperative societies have been created which provide the new small landowner with water, fertilizers, pure seed, livestock, technical advice and other facilities. As a c… After repelling a particularly devastating attack on British shipping and facilities near Ismailia which resulted in the death of several British soldiers, British troops tracked the fedayeen into the city. Finally, on 19 October, Nasser signed a treaty for the evacuation of British troops from Egypt, to be completed over the following 20 months. Overwhelmed and unsettled, Eastern minds lost almost all national values, yet could not absorb Western values. One aspect of this was the struggle for autonomy in financial matters, and beyond that for an increase in individual and national incomes and a lifting of cultural and social standards. In 1957, Nasser announced the formation of the National Union (Al-Ittihad Al-Qawmi), paving the way to July elections for the National Assembly, the first parliament since 1952. Naguib ordered the captain of Farouk's yacht, al-Mahrusa, not to sail without orders from the army. General Neguib ended the monarchical system in Egypt and became president of the newly formed republic. 2) What were the major factors (e.g., technological, economic, ideological, political, cultural, artistic) that contributed to the creation of the Egyptian film industry? A great mass of the agricultural population owned nothing. With cotton as its most important cash crop, Egypt took advantage of the global cotton market during the American Civil War and the Depression of 1873 by selling cotton to meet a growing demand. The Egyptians had to pay the cost of occupation and open the country to British companies and foreign agencies. The anniversary of the Revolution is commemorated on Revolution Day, an annual public holiday in Egypt, on 23 July. It is expected that the agrarian reform program will also switch a major part of the nation's capital from agriculture to industry, as big landowners are given compensation for their estates in the form of bonds which can be invested in industrial projects. The Cotton Futures Market, through which the prices had been manipulated, was closed, and Egyptian cotton prices tied up with those of the United States. Since national wealth was inequitably distributed and predominantly feudalistic, the revolution enacted the Agrarian Reform Bill which set a ceiling on land ownership and rent, and provided against the breaking up of holdings not exceeding five acres. To promote the welfare of the masses, the government undertook a vast program of social services. A closing word about Egypt's foreign relations: despite all reports to the contrary by enemies of the Arab world, the Arab League is a reality. Egypt suffered a foreign trade deficit of $225,000,000 in 1952, and a total deficit in the ten years before the revolution of more than 1.5 billion dollars. To improve the trade balance we also had to cut down nonessential imports, and to restrict imports from countries with which we had not concluded trade agreements. When World War II came they said they could not go because the Suez Canal was an important base, and after World War II they explained that they had to stay to safeguard the interests of the free world. Hence the cleavage between the ruling family and the enslaved masses, and the seeds of hatred that germinated and flowered throughout the reigns of his successors, Ibrahim, Ismail and Tewfik. Egypt's story in these years centers upon the effort to free the country from a foreign yoke and to find a policy capable of eradicating the evils accumulated by feudalism and compounded by misuse of governmental power. Fifty Egyptian police officers were killed and one hundred were wounded. The revolutionary government was able to overcome this chronic foreign trade deficit, and to show a profit of $43,000,000 by the first quarter of 1954, and of $61,000,000 by the second quarter of the same year. (AP Photo/Nasser Nasser) 2013 For instance, the Sadd el 'Ali scheme will provide hydroelectric power for industry, while the fertilizer factories will add to the fertility of the soil. The chief item is a four-year plan, from 1952 to 1956, to reclaim 311,680 acres in Upper and Lower Egypt. The entire garrison of General Arabi's men in the Alexandria forts defended their positions to the last man; but in the battles that ensued, Arabi's army was defeated with the Khedive's connivance, and the British occupation began. That is why Egypt has made every effort to strengthen the Arab League's Collective Security Pact. This system of foreign rule was built on the corrupt monarchy and the feudal system that had been instituted under Mohammed Ali, who reigned from 1805 to 1849. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2014. This began on July 23, 1952, initially aimed to overthrow King Farouk. Free men are the most fanatical defenders of their liberty, nor do they lightly forget those who have championed their struggle for independence. It has its ubiquitous principles--applicable to time and place and mindful of the rights of man. These two issues conflated four years after the revolution when Egypt was invaded by Britain, France, and Israel in the Suez Crisis of 1956. The internal market, and to a larger extent the external one, were dominated by British influence. The pre-revolutionary balance of trade was unfavorable to Egypt. It reëstablished the Industrial Bank, the main objectives of which are to aid emerging industries, consolidate those already existing and provide technical aid. 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