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Single-particle entanglement: Quantum nonlocality or quantum contextuality? Finally, as a breeze whips up some loose papers from an overflowing garbage receptacle, a torn page from a comic book spirals into the air, and lands meters in front of you. I am content with explaining why the familiar spatiotemporal kind cannot explain the nonlocality that is implied by the incomplete differentiation of the spatial aspect of the physical world. Virtually every interpretation of quantum mechanics (including those which modify the theory’s formal apparatus or postulate unobservable beables) does share those standard assumptions. UPDATE 11 March 2016: This  paper has morphed into “Quantum mechanics in a new light”, which has been published in Foundations of Science, DOI: 10.1007/s10699-016-9487-6. It can always be dismissed as coincidence, cause and effect but regardless to outsider opinion, this experience had a profound effect on the individual. Copyright © 2020 International Journal of Quantum Foundations. This part broadly traces the history of quantum nonlocality theory. 2. That is, I cannot tell whether the author thinks that his interpretation provides a *local* explanation of the correlations, or instead one that is, while still nonlocal, superior in some way to the explanations provided by the several extant realistic versions of QM. I am not in the least surprised that the referee finds the paper incomprehensible. Sometimes, I envy those who experience frequent amounts of synchronicity, because as of late, I don’t witness it anymore. Ilya Obodovskiy, in Radiation, 2019. This seemed to me very strange. I turned round and saw that it was a fairly large flying insect that was knocking against the window-pane from outside in the obvious effort to get into the dark room. The part I found clearest was the passage at the end of section 4 in which the author makes the point that the usual causal story involved in two subsequent spin measurements on a single particle is time-asymmetric. According to equations , , , we are able to examine the performance of EPR steering, Bell nonlocality and entanglement in the QDS under the influence of the main model parameters.The relationship among the three classes of quantum correlations at different temperatures for various values of the parameters r and k 0 are shown in Fig. (See my arXiv:1410.5916 for an in-depth discussion of this issue.). If these entirely possible chance scenarios took place, would they implicate your decision making in any way? As the insolubility proofs of the objectification problem have shown, unitary dynamics cannot account for the existence of a domain in which measurements have outcomes. It was a scarabaeid beetle, or common rose-chafer (Cetonia aurata), whose gold-green colour most nearly resembles that of a golden scarab. If you believe something is a sign, I believe you should put your pride and doubt aside and follow it and and see where it goes, why not? The author, Nicolas Gisin, is a world-class expert in the subject of the book's subtitle: quantum "nonlocality, teleportation, and other quantum marvels". That kind of causality cannot be responsible. There had been a a gas pressure explosion, that had projected a large piece of metal directly through his vehicle, which lodged through the framework, precisely where his head would have been. The quantum equations can be reorganised in many ways, notably done by Bohm & Hiley to describe locally real particles accompanied by a "pilot wave". I must thank the referee for forcing me to make the necessary effort. In virtue of the features of quantum potential, a new order must be introduced to understand quantum phenomena, in particular quantum nonlocality. The author’s overall thesis appears to be that, in an interpretation of quantum mechanics in which certain standard assumptions of spatiotemporality are rejected, the quantum correlations (which Bell argued prove the existence of nonlocal, i.e., faster-than-light, causation) can instead be understood in a different way. Because as things stand now, they look like simple counterexamples to a bunch of the ideas (like that normal notions of spatiotemporality are untenable) that seem to motivate his proposals. 34 by Dieks, editor of Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics.) Since to interpret in a correct and appropriate way also the time reverse of a quantum process (and thus also of the instantaneous communication between subatomic particles) of a symmetry in time in quantum mechanics is needed, a symmetrized reformulation of bohmian mechanics is introduced and analyzed.”, “If everything that ever interacted in the Big Bang maintains its connection with everything it interacted with, then every particle in every star and galaxy that we can see “knows” about the existence of every other particle.”. Nonlocality Nonlocality is today strongly associated with the idea of entanglement, but nonlocality is a property of a single quantum of light, whereas entanglement is a joint property of two quantum particles, depending on an even more subtle property called nonseparability. After several fruitless attempts to sweeten her rationalism with a somewhat more human understanding, I had to confine myself to the hope that something unexpected and irrational would turn up, something that would burst the intellectual retort into which she had sealed herself. Carl Jung, along with theoretical physicist Wolfgang Pauli had theorized that life itself, the physical, the psychological, the spiritual interpretations of what is and isn’t around us, are all part of a much larger concept, they called the Unus Mundus, “one world”. Summhammer, Sulyok, and Bernroider analyzed such a situation in their paper [ 28 ], “Quantum Dynamics and Non-Local Effects Behind Ion Transition States during Permeation in Membrane Channel Proteins”. ᵀᴴᴱ EGLANTINE EXPERIMENT – ᵀᴴᴱ ORBIS. If the theory itself tells me that a feature of its mathematical apparatus is unobservable, I conclude that that feature does not exist except as a feature of the mathematical apparatus. In this chapter, I explain ex-actly what quantum nonlocality is and discuss its intimate connection to Middle Way emptiness. I have read the manuscript “Quantum Nonlocality Explained”, submitted to IJQF. Finally, in response to the author’s paragraph explaining why he doesn’t find it surprising that I found the paper incomprehensible, I don’t think his remarks are on target at all. Now that event, could most definitely have been a coincidence. Consider a pair of separated particles in the singlet state. Ultimately, when looking at the most perceivable aspects of synchronicity, the coincidental occurrences, the first question most of us think is, who or what governs synchronicity, who/what orchestrates the unusual circumstances to unfold? The other women smiled awkwardly, nodding to enforce her belief, deluded as it may have seemed. The examples of this phenomenon are extremely broad, as some individuals will interpret all kinds of stimuli as a relevant symbolic message, quite possibly a constant (willful) confirmation bias. Given only that state, the quantum formalism permits no definite predictions about the outcome of an x -spin measurement on either side: … For arguments sake, an argument you may or may not be having with yourself, on how you feel about synchronicity as a concept, I’d like you to partake in this hypothetical scenario (and try to be as honest with yourself as possible). How about this: The fact that the spatial differentiation of the physical world is incomplete (so that physical space cannot be modeled as an actually existing manifold of points) makes it possible to rigorously define “macroscopic object” (as opposed to the FAPP definitions provided by other interpretations) and to draw a rigorous distinction between the classical and quantum domains, a distinction not imposed from outside but implied by the theory itself. which explain the correlations in a way that doesn’t involve any rejection of what I would think of as “standard assumptions of spatiotemporality”. A few comments in response to the author’s comments on my earlier comments: “Quantum mechanics itself implies that standard assumptions of spatiotemporality *must* be rejected.”. It is not clear to me what the referee means by saying that the quantum correlations can be understood in a different way. But as they looked at this woman, full of sympathy, a feather slowly danced through the air, tumbling into the circle of women as they spoke. Do these occurrences mean anything to you? He was a true creature of habit, every morning he would arrive on site, park his vehicle in the same place, sign on, return to his vehicle and drink his coffee. Quantum mechanics itself implies that standard assumptions of spatiotemporality must be rejected. Why are the interventions at a coincidental level? The part I found clearest was the passage at the end of section 4 in which the author makes the point that the usual causal story involved in two subsequent spin measurements on a single particle is time-asymmetric. What I should have said is that quantum mechanics renders the standard assumptions of spatiotemporality unobservable, via the indeterminacy principle, as argued in the paper. The referee reiterates that the problem with what is said in my paper is that it “is to me incomprehensible.” This ought to be reason to reject the referee, not the paper. I recall hearing about a woman, who was friends with my mother. It is of the opinion of a great many, that it is entirely possible, that not only have you never noticed a single coincidence of any merit in your lifetime, but the concept of synchronicity in its entirety, is utter nonsense. I’m sure the author thinks that his fleshing-out of the particular “kind” of non-spatiotemporal causation that he discusses does provide an explanation of something. In its simplest form, ‘synchronicity’ could be explained as coincidences that are given meaning by those who discover or notice them. That process itself cannot be understood in these terms. Bell's theorem proves that quantum physics is incompatible with local hidden-variable theories.It was introduced by physicist John Stewart Bell in a 1964 paper titled "On the Einstein Podolsky Rosen Paradox", referring to a 1935 thought experiment that Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen used to argue that quantum physics is an "incomplete" theory. Overall, I cannot recommend the paper for publication, for the simple reason that I find it utterly incomprehensible. Alain Aspect's experiments in 1982 at the University of Paris-South proved the existence of quantum nonlocality. Quantum Nonlocality I do not claim that this explains quantum nonlocality. If this wasn’t eerie enough, it was later discovered that the person he thought he saw, had actually already passed away some years prior, in a work place accident. These experiments have been refined and repeated many times since. HOW DOES SYNCHRONICITY, THEORETICAL QUANTUM NONLOCALITY EFFECT MY DAY TO DAY LIFE? As you look down at the page, you notice the words “NO SURVIVORS!” and the illustration shows flight AAL100, the same flight number that appears on your ticket sitting on the bench at home. That counts for nothing? (iii) Tackling the same problem in the quantum speedup, the fact that the ordinary quantum description describes it mathematically, quantum algorithm by quantum algorithm, but not physically. But in a 1935 paper, Einstein and his co-authors showed how entanglement leads to what's now called quantum nonlocality, the eerie link that appears to exist between entangled particles. It is perfectly legitimate, and even necessary for the point being made, to clearly distinguish local from nonlocal explanations, the point being made being that in a world that is incompletely differentiated spacewise, local explanations are impossible. That process itself cannot be understood in these terms. 3 represents the correlations involved in logical order. Powered by WordPress and Path. Analogously, the statistics achievable by separate observers in a quantum theory also happen to be restricted. Did it escape the referee that the case of two spin measurements on EPR-entangled particles in spacelike relation is discussed in Sect. This video is hosted by Associate Professor Andrea Morello from the School of Engineering (University of New South Wales, Australia), who is able to give a very clear explanation of quantum entanglement. But they don’t give up on the project of giving a coherent spatiotemporal physical account, and indeed they succeed (at very least) in proving that this is possible. The paper explains quantum nonlocality as a consequence of the process of manifestation, whose end result is the existence of the macroworld, which allows itself to be understood in terms of causal relations across time or spacetime. Locality in physics is the idea that things are only influenced by forces that are local or nearby. —Milton I have already disproved quantum non-locality in my papers on superposition, where I explain the old experiments with real and diagrammable qualities and quantities. Figure 1: Classical Posts . The referee can’t understand why anybody would want to give up on the project of giving a coherent spatiotemporal physical account of the nonlocal correlations. Strangely, it almost feels as though I’ve fallen out of favor, of someone, or something. To be sure, much effort has been and continues to be directed towards showing how the classical domain emerges from the quantum domain, so that it does not have to be treated as a separate domain. Perhaps even the illusion of meaning, is worth more than no meaning at all, in the end. But would you want to tell this woman otherwise? As foolish as it may sound, my genuine advice would be, don’t make the mistake I did. But then it is not clear to me what the point is. Or very high-dimensional Hilbert space? The problem with the paper is not that it doesn’t contain enough mathematical formulas, but that what is said is to me incomprehensible. The treatment could now be continued with satisfactory results.”, —Synchronicity: An Acausal Connecting Principle, 1969. As a side note, many of the experiments used to determine the existence/occurrence of acts of quantum nonlocality taking place, are considered by some to be highly speculative. Another question, is how could this be taking place in our perceivable universe? You noticed that your seat number is 13C. Maybe they were right? Went too far off of the path I was meant to stay on, too stubborn, ignored too many of the signs, so they stopped happening. 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