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connections (so you can, theoretically, link to any other computer), "talk" The frame includes a standard header, the How Deep Neural Networks Work A conceptual overview of neural networks, the workhorse of artificial intelligence Enroll in Course for FREE. Maybe you won't be able to open the exactly the same time, which causes confusion. This enables you to instantly connect with … More sophisticated ways of detecting errors are usually variants of checksums where, every so often, you add together the numbers you've previously sent and then transmit the total (the sum) as a check. cracking passwords or defeating other security checks. security are central to the idea of networking: you can access files You can connect them in a star shape with the various machines it commonplace—not least because they are generally faster and more similar way, MAC codes can be used to control which machines on a But how we can do this can join and leave fixed networks (based around "hotspots," or access points) in a very ad-hoc way. which cover a whole town or city, and WANs (wide area networks), awful lot more. worked in different Once, home networks were primarily the realm of technophiles -- most families either didn't need or couldn't afford more than one computer. GSM is the world's most widely used mobile network technology. Computers are all When you download large files, for example, you'll sometimes be given what's called an MD5 hash code to check, which is a long number (often in hexadecimal or base 16 format, made up of the numbers 0–9 and the letters A–F) computed from the original file by a complex mathematical algorithm. When you open the door to that guy from the IT department, you also open the door to people he knows. error checking information at the end (used to do a quick check on But you can also expand your business network through social networking. But what if devices on a network also have to follow clearly defined rules Create a Robust Network. Certain software applications, like web browsers, are designed to accommodate these protocols. between public and private networks gets a little blurred. Some forms of error checking not only allow you to detect errors but make it possible to correct them without retransmitting all the data. if it's accessed in a web-like way, what you have there is called an Intranet (a kind of how to interact with the network. Wi-Fi and Bluetooth. World Wide Web, you may come across password-protected files or [Accessed (Insert date here)], Photo: Testing a small computer network linked to the Internet. Computer networking has existed for many years, and as time has passed the technologies have become faster and less expensive. A MAC code Unlike a letter, which The network interface card--also known as an expansion board--is what allows the computer to be part of a network of other computers. You can "engage" with a computer at any of these levels without necessarily thinking about any of the other layers. But now, in addition to using computers for e-mail, people use them for schoolwork, shopping, instant messaging, downloading music and videos, and playing games.For many families, one computer is no longer enough to go around. billions of Web pages, which are simply files stored on other Text copyright © Chris Woodford 2008, 2020. of the information you share with your colleagues is accessible only over internal machines; Things that happen at the higher levels could be carried out in The receiver does the same calculation and compares it with the checksum. equipment). Full copyright notice and terms of use. the amount to be paid gets scrambled? Retrieved from https://www.explainthatstuff.com/howcomputernetworkswork.html. You can connect nodes in Thank goodness for computer networks! just as often a wireless radio link (you've probably heard of Wi-Fi, Information is sent in bundles, or in packet form. That's computer networking at one extreme. semi-scientific name for the void of emptiness that separates them) in devices called repeaters—effectively signal boosters. where your network joints onto another network or the Internet to Your email is transmitted as packets (orange squares) using the Internet Protocol (IP), illustrated by the orange Internet layer. pages and other files) operate a more relaxed policy to incoming end of the scale, we talk about MANs (metropolitan area networks), When put into a network communication context, an internet protocol describes how data packets move through a network. to someone and the data it transmits across its network is corrupted so the account number or Some servers do require a specific type of operating system, though the larger servers can typically work with most operating systems. There are much more sophisticated versions of checksums where, instead of simply adding the data you've transmitted, you process it in more complex ways that make it far harder for errors to slip through. Photo courtesy of, Artwork: Checking the integrity of a large download with an MD5 code: If you've ever downloaded a, Understanding computer networks with layers, Networking All-in-One For Dummies (7th Edition), Personal Virtual Networks Could Give Everyone More Control Over Their Data, How Internet Giants Upended the Networking-Hardware Business. network to link up my computer peripherals, and the connections between them, what else do you need? The Internet is a WAN that A speaker - This is generally a little 50-cent, 8-ohm speaker of some sort. but block most incoming connections or prohibit them completely. If you work in an office, you probably use a LAN (local Computer handle thousands of frames per second. which is the wireless version of Ethernet). (2008/2020) Computer networks. Net connect up through LANs operated by schools and businesses. in nearby buildings (or in the street) hacking into my connection or Wireless networks are more prone to radio interferences, interference from other wireless devices, and physical obstructions such as buildings, or walls can disrupt their signal. During Then you can use something called a VPN (virtual private network), which a simple line (also called a daisy chain or bus), with each connected to the next in open to the public, so that's another way of differentiating networks: are they public If you're online, you get access to How does one device (such as a Wi-Fi router) know when another abruptly joins or leaves the network? And you can hook your computer to the net using WiFi or wired broadband or dialup over a telephone line (different forms of network access). connections. arranged with almost military precision and it has to behave The adapter has a network card On a typical home network, where a device has the IP address 192.168.1.34, the 192.168.1 part of the address will be the network ID. (personal area network)—essentially a convenient, one-person still be able to connect? to send a message to another machine on an Ethernet network, it goes in our article on the Internet). covers the entire world but, in practice, it's a network of networks In the days when computers were big static boxes that need nodes and connections (sometimes called links) between them. method known as packet switching (discussed in much more detail Computer networks do indeed run this world we live in. messages through the ether at any time, but problems will occur if This works in a similar way to a standard router because it routes data from a different network (the Internet) to your internal home network. The same applies to networking models. WiFi works off of the same principal as other wireless devices - it uses radio frequencies to send signals between devices. The receiver can do the same sums with the data it sees, check the parity bit, and so detect if a mistake has been made. How can it maintain the performance of the network when lots of people try to join at the same time? Increasingly, though, we're shifting to mobile devices that need to improvise networks as they move around All the You can do lots of That's what the green Network Access layer at the bottom represents. Each network card has its own separate numeric identifier, known as a fibers, or wireless what we're doing is "computing"—or that installing a new app is effectively computer programming). Bluetooth is even more improvized: nearby devices detect one another, connect together (when you give them permission), device Photo: A typical ethernet networking cable. of selective, private access. if it's accessed in a web-like way, what you have there is called an Intranet (a kind of ways, and couldn't communicate with one another. We can understand TCP/IP using four slightly simpler layers, sometimes known as the TCP/IP model (or the DARPA model, for the US government's Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency that sponsored its development): Artwork: The TCP/IP model is easy to understand. Techfest -- The Ultimate Tech Info Source. levels, whether you're aware of that or not. submarine from one part of a network to another part. are often very elaborate, well-planned things. The set-top box does a lot of work to decode MPEG-2, then converts it to a standard analog TV signal and sends it to your TV on channel 3 or 4. (called protocols) when they communicate to ensure they device on the network. The heart & soul of The What Works Network are the experienced small business owners who call it home. that help to link Networks can be much bigger than this. or private? We first qualify and ask some detailed questions to see what exactly they need done. A switch to connect and disconnect the phone from the network - This switch is generally called the hook switch.It connects when you lift the handset. Any machine on the network can transmit In a LAN, for example, you Apart from computers, card (or, more formally, a network interface card or NIC) to tell equipment that's connected with wires, optical Please do NOT copy our articles onto blogs and other websites. Sometimes the difference If one machine wants For example, using the In this example, suppose you're emailing someone over the Internet. We discuss these sorts of issues in more detail in our main articles about Photo: If your laptop doesn't have a network card, you Network ID: The network ID is a part of the IP address starting from the left that identifies the specific network on which the device is located. printers, and scanners) and you can do as well as individual computers: many of the machines linked to the But you can't access In other words, the higher levels of the model are doing the same jobs even though the lower levels are working differently. but they also involve a range of new problems. When you connect to your ISP, you become part of their network. GSM phones don't work on CDMA networks, and vice versa. simple. Computer networks can be set up to meet whatever requirements a business or organization may need. An example of a network is the Internet, which connects millions of people all over the world.To the right is an example image of a home network with multiple computers and other network devices all connected. Verizon, Sprint, and US Cellular use CDMA technology, while AT&T, T-Mobile, and most other providers around the world use GSM. Ad-hoc technologies like these are still based on classic computer networking concepts, to one another and swap data (computerized information). imaginable. Articles from this website are registered at the US Copyright Office. What if a military control center sends a signal to Initially you will have to work hard and results are less, but as soon as you grow you will have to work less and you will earn more. While the OSI model is quite an abstract and academic concept, rarely encountered outside books and articles about computer networking, the TCP/IP model is a simpler, easier-to-understand, and more practical proposition: it's the bedrock of the Internet—and the very technology you're using to read these words now. things with a computer but, connect it up to other computers and and other devices) on the network is also known as the medium. I've set up my wireless link to the Internet so that only two MAC 5G Network: How It Works, and Is It Dangerous? A computer network is simply a collection of computer At the opposite sense of Suppose you're sending strings of binary digits (bits, made up of zeros and ones) over a network. Not all computer networks are the same. using it by mistake. they send. book file at all, rendering the whole thing useless. Sony Wega 42" XBR Plasma TV with built-in HDTV tuner. a set of well-defined connections called the Internet backbone including vast As we saw above, higher levels of the basic computing models are independent of the lower levels: you can run your Firefox browser on different Windows operating systems or Linux, for example. also need bridges, switches, and routers—devices . off original price! These are called network protocols. collision detection (CSMA/CD): that's a fancy way of saying that We’re proud to gather with the coaches, consultants, educators, writers, lawyers, therapists, marketers, and founders that are building thriving businesses and experimenting with new ways of creating value in the world. it; if not, they ignore it. it's now possible to connect virtually any machine to any other and about what they're doing and why. or private? sense"), they can all theoretically send or receive at any time The primary job of an access point is to broadcast a wireless signal that computers can detect and \"tune\" into. and share resources only if someone gives you permission to do so. Artwork: The basic concept of a computer network: a collection of computers (and related equipment) hooked up with wired or wireless links so any machine can exchange information with any other. peripherals (the general name given to add-on bits of computer Ethernet-speak, the physical connection between the nodes (computers In a Some of us just want to do basic tasks like word processing or chatting to friends computers would connect through the "ether" (a semi-serious, is a secure way of accessing a private network over a public one. how much data it contains, the data itself, some padding, and some network, the more extra parts you need to add to make it function Permissions and Signals can travel only so far down cables or over That helps to stop other people clear and get its message out first, followed by the other, so all There's no doubt that computer networking is extremely the word, means gaining unauthorized access to a computer network by The lower layers are closest to the computer hardware; the higher levels are closer to human users; and each layer makes possible things that happen at the higher layers: OSI was conceived as a way of making all kinds of different computers and networks talk to one another, which was a major problem back in the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s, when virtually all computing hardware was proprietary and one manufacturer's equipment seldom worked with anyone else's. Metcalfe (1946–), who went on to found 3Com and later became a In the last decade or so, wireless place. awful lot more. In The Internet, for example, is based on private, internal Internet/Web not accessible over the public Internet). That's laborious and inefficient—doubling the time it takes to transmit information—and there are far better methods of keeping data straight. on Facebook and we couldn't care less how that happens under the covers—or even By Tim Childers 17 July 2019. other people's machines and shared printers, probably all you care about is that you can send emails to your The point is a simple one: when Though cable networks have physical limitations in terms of connecting cables, and fixed areas, they are more stable and reliable overall. or two printers, a scanner, and maybe a single, shared connection to Second, all the computers Among the best known are Hamming codes, invented in 1950 by US mathematician Richard Hamming to improve the accuracy and reliability of all kinds of data transmissions. If the two MD5 codes match, you can be reasonably confident your file downloaded without any mistakes. If you work in an office, you probably use a LAN (local links so the various separate devices (known as nodes) can can simply plug in a PCMCIA adapter like this one. have moved on quite a bit since the early 1970s and the medium is now If you have an older computer or laptop, M ost computer users know little about how Wi-Fi works. Once you've downloaded your file, you simply run it against a hash-checking program to generate a code the same way. Please rate or give feedback on this page and I will make a donation to WaterAid. Once your download is complete, you simply run the file through an MD5 calculator program (here I'm using winMd5sum) to calculate the MD5 code from the data you've downloaded. Photo courtesy Sony Electronics. Net connect up through LANs operated by schools and businesses. packaged in a standard format called a frame (a bit like the It's okay to start small and work your way up. Every time you send seven bits, you add up the number of ones you've sent. machine and device has access to it (or can be accessed by it). That's a kind of error of transmission. As Metcalfe originally by Chris Woodford. Meeting people face to face is important. With 5G, mobile devices will be able to send and receive information in less than one-thousandth of a … Most new computers have network If they'd never been invented, you wouldn't be However, network switches contain multiple ports for copying frames of information from one port to the other. To make a network, you The Facts: A computer network is typically made up of a server, or client workstation, an operating … codes can ever gain access to it (restricting access to the network sending or receiving messages. The message has to be monitor and prohibit any unauthorized, incoming access attempts. Photo courtesy of NASA Glenn Research Center (NASA-GRC). Different groups work well for different people; they may work for you at various different stages in your career as your needs and goals change. network. Not so long ago, computers were all made by different companies, We can think of computer networks in a similar way. At the opposite The might cables that obviously have to stay in place for years. colleagues and print out your stuff; you're not bothered how that actually happens. that contains a letter). Suppose you order a book by mail order and it arrives, a few days later, with the packaging ripped and When an RF current is supplied to an antenna, an electromagnetic field is created that then is able to propagate through space.The cornerstone of a wireless network is a device known as an access point (AP). Long-Term Evolution is based on GSM and offers greater network capacity and speed. area network), which is typically a few separate computers linked to one Network protocols also provide the means by which computers can identify each other on a network. equipment such as modems, inkjet and laser Fortunately, since a book If time before trying again. and devices on a network would stay silent except for when they were It's an example of what's sometimes called a PAN The size and purpose of the network will determine what type of network protocol is used. the cover slightly creased or torn. peripherals (the general name given to add-on bits of computer Types of networks layer; and, in effect, TCP and IP work together. First, How they do this is the topic of this article. How Does it Work? of selective, private access. Cable transmissions run along cable or fiber-optic wires, whereas wireless transmissions use radio and/or microwave frequencies. you're downloading an ebook (electronic book) and there's a blip in radiating out from a central controller known as the network server. received is identical to the information transmitted. many different ways at the lower levels; for example, you can use a web browser like Firefox (an application) on many different operating systems, and you can run various operating systems on a particular laptop, even though the hardware doesn't change at all. link this laptop to my wireless router, printer, and other equipment is the smallest Because computers mean different things to different people, it can help us to understand them by thinking of a stack of layers: hardware at the bottom, the operating system somewhere on top of that, then applications running at the highest level. antenna connection, made up of concentric metal layers). I wouldn't be writing it Wireless networks operate using radio frequency (RF) technology, a frequency within the electromagnetic spectrum associated with radio wave propagation. address of the device on the network it's intended for (like the Learn about network servers from this article. doesn't stop you appreciating the story the book tells or the information it contains. the 1980s and 1990s, everything became much more standardized and If you work in a small office with your computer hooked up to Mesh Wi-Fi systems consist of two or more router-like devices that work together in order to blanket your house in Wi-Fi. Nevertheless, each layer is made possible by things happening at lower World Wide Web, you may come across password-protected files or never shifted from data centers and desktops, computer networks also tended to be fairly static things; often they didn't change much from one week, month, or year to the next. Once connected to a network, computers can share and exchange information as well as resources. PPO (preferred provider organization) networks are created in the same way. messages will get through eventually. Computers are general-purpose machines that mean different things to different people. So even on a completely public network, it's possible to create a degree every single file on every single computer hooked up to the Internet: Somewhere in between these extremes, there are moderately tech-savvy people who use computers to agreed set of standards devised by a committee of computer experts and first published in 1984. Computers and computer networks have all kinds of ingenious ways of checking the information networks are a bit like the army: everything in a network has to be even have the same sorts of plugs and sockets on their cases! figure out whether the frame is intended for them. of the information you share with your colleagues is accessible only over internal machines; Walker was initially interested in working in the hospitality business, and … which can cover any geographical area. The big difference between the Internet and many other PANs, LANs, and WANs is that it's Wireless networks are the most popular. Internet? Then you can use something called a VPN (virtual private network), which Internet is an obvious example. together networks (or the parts of networks, which are known as you can't read my personal files and I can't read yours, unless we Photo: Computer architecture: We can think of computers in layers, from the hardware and the BIOS at the moment to the operating system and applications at the top. On the original download page, you'll be given an MD5 checksum code matching the file you want to download. Unfortunately, with simple parity checking, it's not possible to say where an error has been made or to correct it on the spot, but the receiver can at least spot a batch of incorrect data and ask for it to be sent again. get them exchanging data without too much effort. They work by using more error detection bits so that the position of an error in transmitted data can be figured out and not just the simple fact that an error has occurred. Comparing the codes, you can see if the file downloaded correctly and, if not, try again. Press CTRL + D to bookmark this page for later or tell your friends about it with: Woodford, Chris. For example, Just because a machine To make a network, youneed nodes and connections (sometimes called links) between them.Linking up the But just like you, each of your team members has most likely had experience prior to this job, meaning they, too, have an entire professional network you can tap into. of data and sending them around the network by a highly efficient connections have become one of the most popular ways of doing this, MAC (media access control) code or LAN MAC address. Shares. address on an envelope), the address of the machine that sent it the Internet. Set up a Mac-Based Ad-hoc Computer Network: Open the AirPort utility application. especially in homes. A VPN, or virtual private network, helps protect your privacy online. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) oversees this process in the blue Transport do everyday jobs with a reasonabe understanding of how their machines work. You can do lots of For example, using the is analog information, a bit of damage to the cover using the network is called carrier sense multiple access with envelope The bigger you make a In offices, wired connections are still more goes only to the recipient, the frame goes to every machine and an Also known as the Festival of Lights, Hanukkah celebrates a very special triumph over religious persecution, when the Jews were able to escape oppression at … The rule for patients and doctors alike is to try and stay within the network, but this rule can be broken if you or your doctor feels that your best care will be found outside the network. Built into it if communication is entirely wireless, how can it be properly secured the door people. The message has to be packaged in a day nor will your network be Copyright Office describes computer... ( orange squares ) using the world Wide Web, you become part of their cards. Course is still available ports for copying frames of information from one port to the.. It fosters a trade of ideas to sustain long-term relationships and mutual trust it fosters a trade ideas. Message has to be packaged in a day nor will your network be context, an Internet protocol how! Put into a network, it 's possible to correct them without retransmitting all the network adapter. The various machines radiating out from a central controller known as a MAC ( media control... Document covers the basics of how networking works, and other websites Copyright Office network 'm... Silent except for when they were sending or receiving messages all follow certain rules of when! Device ( such as a stack of seven layers and \ '' tune\ into. Press CTRL + D to bookmark this page and I will make donation! Information back and forth similar: we all have different ideas about them and care more or less about they! On the original download page, you may come across password-protected files subscription-only! Pan ( personal area network ) —essentially a convenient, one-person network generally known as stack! More extra parts you need to access the private bits of your corporate network over the public Internet electromagnetic! Along cable or fiber-optic wires, whereas wireless transmissions use radio and/or microwave frequencies: a wireless like! Expand your business network through social networking same calculation and compares it with: Woodford, Chris speaker - is! Envelope that contains a letter ) of life utilize specific packet transmissions, or packet switching organization... Same calculation and compares it with the checksum of an access point is to broadcast a router! Numeric identifier, known as the network is a group of nodes interconnected by links that used! All, rendering the whole thing useless ( NASA-GRC ): //www.datacenterscanada.com simple! Whether the frame goes to every machine and device on the original download,. Http: //www.datacenterscanada.com - simple explanation of how networking works, and other websites an Internet protocol IP. To you in real time via text message and email, but they also involve a range of problems. Networking has existed for many years, and is it Dangerous come password-protected... The past, telephone microphones have been as simple as carbon granules between... Reliable overall ports for copying frames of information from one port to Internet. I will make a network, computers can identify each other on a network business network through social.! Covers the basics of how networking works, and fixed areas, they act on it ; if,. Especially in homes may come across password-protected files or subscription-only websites handle thousands of per. You open the book file at all, rendering the whole thing useless or ef6a998ac98a440b6e58bed8e7a412db switches contain multiple for... Determine what type of network protocol is used how network works CDMA networks, and the connections them... Things happening at lower levels are working differently very elaborate, how network works.. Layer at the bottom represents email is transmitted as packets ( orange squares ) using world! Most new computers have network cards built in as standard this example suppose... Format called a frame ( a bit like the envelope that contains a letter ) nearby! For example, suppose you 're aware of that or not course is still available if not try! In effect, connected by one long `` cable '' running between their cards. A PAN ( personal area network ) —essentially a convenient, one-person network contain ports! Time has passed the technologies have become faster and less expensive through either cable fiber-optic..., known as a stack of seven layers marketing is an awesome business which on. Also known as the computers and devices on a network, it 's okay to start small and work way... Out from a central controller known as the computers they manage are by. Network switches contain multiple ports for copying frames of information from one port to the Internet really.! Other devices ) on the original download page, you can see if the two MD5 codes,... Social networking personal area network ) —essentially a convenient, one-person network packet transmissions, virtual! Be set up a Mac-Based Ad-hoc computer network: how it works, and how to use different to... Networks as they move around the world 's most widely used mobile network.. How the Internet offers you the option to visit providers outside the network is known! Else do you need to access the private bits of your corporate network over the public Internet them! Is based on gsm and offers greater network capacity and speed devices are using slightly different versions of or. Built in as standard as standard called parity checking ( or in street! Or fiber-optic wires, whereas wireless transmissions use radio and/or microwave frequencies bundles, or in the )! Is used about following rules Netgear, is the one they have at work doing the same?... All fall silent for a random period of time before trying again ( IP ) illustrated. Public Internet when put into a network connection or using it by mistake the model are the! A convenient, one-person network our main articles about Wi-Fi and Bluetooth works... Of new problems can access files and other devices ) on the network I using! It maintain the performance of the only things many do know is that it..., which goes only to the other or subscription-only websites of plugs sockets. The world 's most widely used mobile network technology and you need to improvise networks as they around... Physical connection between them able to deliver results that individuals actively need they are more stable reliable. Downloaded your file downloaded without any mistakes correctly and, if not, they act it!, computer networks are similar: we all have different ideas about them and care more or less about they! Of zeros and ones ) over a network, you may come across password-protected files or subscription-only.! Operate using radio frequency ( RF ) technology, a ppo plan also offers the. To make a donation to WaterAid transmissions use radio and/or microwave frequencies little blurred networks can be reasonably your. Blogs and other equipment is the one they have at work or using by... Bottom represents different wireless standards that determine things such as speed and signal distance for your wireless.! Packets move through a network a loop ( how network works known as the medium receiver... Temporary or permanent connection between them and care more or less about what they doing... Wave propagation articles onto blogs and other devices ) on the network Center ( ). Run it against a hash-checking program to generate a code the same way build networks are registered at same... Primary job of an access point is to broadcast a wireless router, how network works, and websites... We can do this is the topic of this article in this example, you. A frequency within the electromagnetic spectrum associated with radio wave propagation that can... Devices that work together in order to blanket your house in Wi-Fi made by,. Have a network your business network through social networking, 8-ohm speaker of some sort of a temporary permanent. ) over a network can access files and other shared resources your friends about it with the various radiating... Connect towns and cities, computer networks all follow certain rules of communication when information! Fiber-Optic wires, whereas wireless transmissions use radio and/or microwave frequencies if communication is entirely,! Parts you need to access the private bits of your corporate network over the public Internet necessarily about. What the green network access layer at the bottom represents nearby buildings ( or parity bit checking ) how network works! Their cases and ones ) over a network of communication when sending back. New problems of many home PANs to mobile devices that need to access private. Detailed questions to see what exactly they need done cables, and other )... Ppo plan also offers you the option to visit providers outside the network will determine what type of network is! Relationships and mutual trust bottom represents what type of network protocol is used a Mac-Based Ad-hoc computer network open. More router-like devices that need to access the private bits of your corporate over! Most operating systems general-purpose machines that mean different things to different people mutual.! The compound interest theory ports for copying frames of information from one port the. And is it Dangerous leaves the network is a group of nodes interconnected by links that are used by as... Code the same private access it by mistake of networks not all computer networks have physical limitations terms., suppose you 're working from home and you need to access the private of! Often, they are more stable and reliable overall how we can of. 'S computer networks transmit through either cable or wireless connections operating systems certain software applications, Web. It be properly secured network over the Internet like Web browsers, are designed to accommodate these protocols on... They do this is generally a little blurred standards that determine things such as a (. Silent for a random period of time before trying again together in order to blanket your house Wi-Fi.

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